What is the meaning of radio active?
: the property possessed by some elements (such as uranium) or isotopes (such as carbon 14) of spontaneously emitting energetic particles (such as electrons or alpha particles) by the disintegration of their atomic nuclei also : the rays emitted.
What causes radio activity?
Atoms found in nature are either stable or unstable. … An atom is unstable (radioactive) if these forces are unbalanced; if the nucleus has an excess of internal energy. Instability of an atom’s nucleus may result from an excess of either neutrons or protons.
What are the 4 types of radioactive decay?
Terms in this set (4)
- Alpha Decay. 2 protons and 2 neutrons lost. Atomic number down by 2, atomic mass down by 4.
- Beta Decay. 1 neutron turns into a proton. Atomic number up by 1.
- Positron Emission. 1 proton turns into a neutron. …
- Gamma Decay. Due to a high energy nucleus, energy is given off and nucleus becomes stable.
What are the 3 types of radioactivity?
The three most common types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.
Is Hiroshima still radioactive?
Among some there is the unfounded fear that Hiroshima and Nagasaki are still radioactive; in reality, this is not true. Following a nuclear explosion, there are two forms of residual radioactivity. … In fact, nearly all the induced radioactivity decayed within a few days of the explosions.
What does Radioactive do to your body?
Ionizing radiation—the kind that minerals, atom bombs and nuclear reactors emit—does one main thing to the human body: it weakens and breaks up DNA, either damaging cells enough to kill them or causing them to mutate in ways that may eventually lead to cancer.
Is radioactive decay truly random?
Yes, radioactive decay is truly random. … Rather than random, radioactive decay is what is called stochastic. That is, on an individual, atom by atom basis, the decay is random in that you cannot predict when any particular atom will decay.
Why is iron so stable?
Iron has the highest binding energy per nucleon so is the most stable nucleus. … Notice that iron has the highest binding energy per nucleon and that this binding energy drops off as the mass of atoms increases after iron. Recall that stars can only fuse atoms together up to iron, which is the most stable nucleus.
Why is it called radioactive?
Radioactivity is the term given to the breaking-up (decay) or rearrangement of an atom’s nucleus. Decay occurs naturally and spontaneously to unstable nuclei. This instability is usually caused by a mismatch between the number of protons and neutrons.
What are the six common types of radioactive decay?
There are 5 different types of radioactive decay.
- Alpha decay follows the form: …
- Beta negative decay follows the form: …
- Gamma decay follows the form: …
- Positron emission (also called Beta positive decay) follows the form: …
- Electron capture follows the form:
What type of radiation is most difficult to protect yourself from?
Gamma rays are a radiation hazard for the entire body. They can easily penetrate barriers that can stop alpha and beta particles, such as skin and clothing. Gamma rays have so much penetrating power that several inches of a dense material like lead, or even a few feet of concrete may be required to stop them.
How do you identify radioactive decay?
Predicting Radioactive Decay Type
For elements with an atomic number less than 20, an N/Z ratio of 1 indicates that an isotope is stable. Isotopes with an N/Z ratio that is larger than 1, which corresponds to an excess number of neutrons, will undergo beta decay.
Which is the most dangerous radiation inside the body?
Which type of radiation has a +2 charge?